Sq3r Technique to Improve Reading Comprehension
Reading techniques play important roles in understanding reading materials. They facilitate students who want to read efficiently. A student who has determined what he expects to gain from his reading should select a reading technique which suits his particular purpose.
Reading techniques play important roles in understanding reading materials. They facilitate students who want to read efficiently. A student who has determined what he expects to gain from his reading should select a reading technique which suits his particular purpose. Obviously, reading a novel or a magazine will not use the same technique that will be used to read a scientific articles or textbooks.
Smith (1972: 7) explains that reading is a very complex and progress from very poor reading habits to better ones. Furthermore, he explains that a reader must not only see and identify the symbol in the front of him but he must able to interpret what he reads, associates with experience and give the text meanings. In order to put the meanings in the text, students should be sure that suitable technique are used to facilitate their rapid understanding of the reading material (Kustaryo, 1988: 4). This appropriateness will help his reading and give positive effect toward the reading.
F.P. Robinson introduced the Survey, Question, Read, Recite and Review (SQ3R) technique of the study into the literature in 1946 (Robinson, 1969 citied by Smith, 1972). Since then, this technique has been used widely in reading and in content-area textbooks. This study method also became the basis from which other reading studies were developed.
Jenkins and Pany (1981 citied by Taschow, 1985: 167) reported the use SQ3R to teach reading brought a significant improvement on the students’ comprehension. They found that students who were given title and paragraph headings answer about 43 percent more comprehension questions correctly than students who read the same passage without the headings. The reports also noted that pictures appear to improve reading for understanding when they are used in the sense of advance organizers, headings, and subheadings. The same thing was done by Adams, Carnie, and Gersten in 1982 (Taschow, 1985: 168). They investigated the efficiency of utilizing the SQ3R to teach reading for fifth-grade students. Some of the results and the conclusions stated that the students who used the technique perform better in reading than those who did not use the technique.
In the SQ3R, Survey, the first component directs the readers to read the title and subtitle and to inspect the introduction, summary, question, graphs, pictures, and
diagrams. This survey is a way of organizing part of the material by previewing it (Robinson, 1983 citied by Taschow, 1985: 167). This component requires the reader to skim the sections and read the final summary paragraph to get an idea of the passage. It is also meant to recall the readers’ background knowledge related to the passage that is going to read. The objective is to gather information about the content in order to focus on what the reader will be learning. This step helps the readers to develop a structure for organizing the information and details that will follow.
The second component, Question, theoretically follows the Survey. However, in practice, Question begins now when surveying begins. The title, subtitles, and headings are turned into questions. This step requires conscious effort, but it is worth as it leads to active reading, the best way to retain written material (Kuther, 2006). The objective is to stimulate curiosity and to get the reader to concentrate on what is about to be read. One thing that needs to be remembered is that the readers must avoid closed questions such as yes or no question because such questions may halt the readers to find further information.
The third and fourth components, Read and Recite are mutually exclusive. They are not separated, in other words they are integrated in a very subtle way. It is in line with the Taschow (1985: 169) who argues that when the first R or Read is completed the second R or Recite takes place. Recite here does not mean to repeat word by word like reciting a poem. Reciting involves physically covering up the reading passage by turning the book face down or by closing it, and then sitting back and thinking, reflecting mentally on what has been read (Holes, 2004).
The last of the three R is Review. After reading the entire passage, the readers need to test their memory by asking themselves the questions that they have identified. The objectives are to increase retention and to recall of the learned material (Kuther, 2006). Reviewing is reflecting the information gathered and relating with the prior knowledge to build comprehensible meanings.
In conclusion, SQ3R is a reading strategy that can be used when students are expected to read and to remember content material. SQ3R is a very strong strategy to activate prior knowledge and to integrate it with new information. It also helps the readers tap their own background knowledge and learn to read for information that is relevant and important to comprehension (Hedberg, 1998).